Poverty is a complex phenomenon. Frequently intended as poverty of means and thus measured through consumption or income, poverty is most reflected in outcomes. It can impact different aspects of a child life and hinder their ability to survive, thrive and realize their full potential.
The MODA methodology takes a holistic definition of child well-being as its starting point, which allows for an analysis of individual children fundamental rights and needs. Compared to the unidimensional approach, in which a child is considered poor if their household income, consumption, or expenditures fall below a certain minimum threshold, the MODA approach provides a more nuanced and comprehensive picture of poverty at different stages of a child’s growth.
To identify poor children, the MODA analysis in Lesotho focuses on eight dimensions, with some dimensions measured at the household level and some at the child level. Four of the eight adopted dimensions, such as water, sanitation, housing and access to information, are measured at the household level, meaning that they affect all household members equally, regardless of age. Four are measured at the child level according to age specific indicators. A child is considered multidimensionally poor if they are simultaneously deprived in 3 dimensions.